Study Questions

Colin G. Calloway, The Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and the Transformation of North America

How was the French and Indian War different from previous conflicts between France and Britain? Describe the general course of the war. Why, as William Pitt said, was peace "as hard to make as war"? How did Americans feel about Britain at the end of the war? What problems did the British face after the war? What does the author say is the purpose of this book?

What did America look like in 1763, in terms of isolation, diversity, population, hopes or fears for the future, etc.? What were Indians' concerns? Describe colonial slavery. What were the leading cities and what was their significance? (Note that Charles Town, South Carolina is present-day Charleston.) How did prevalence of illness and attitudes towards death differ from today?

What did Indians think the war was about? Describe their war goals, their war strategy, and their concerns when the war ended. Describe immigration after the war. Where did immigrants settle? Who stood to gain most from the sale of western land? What were speculators' concerns and goals? Identify Sir William Johnson and his significance.

Why does the author call Pontiac's War the "First War of Independence"? What caused the war? Why were Indians initially so successful? What were Jeffrey Amherst's tactics? How did the war ruin his reputation? Why did the war end? How did the war affect western settlers? Identify the Paxton Boys and their significance. Who were British soldiers and how did they experience the war? What did colonists think of the British Army in America?

Why did King George issue the Proclamation of 1763? Where did the Proclamation Line lie, and how permanent was it to be? Why has the Proclamation been called the Indians' "Bill of Rights"? How did settlers and speculators like George Washington regard it? What were the Treaty of Fort Stanwix and the Treaty of Augusta, and how did they differ? How were southern Indian tribes affected, and what problems did they face?

How were the residents of Quebec affected by the British takeover? What policies did James Murray and his successor adopt about Canadians' religion, government, and economy? Why did Quebec not become the fourteenth state in the United States during the Revolution? How did the peace affect French in the interior ? Describe the founding and early history of St. Louis.

How did Spain end up with Louisiana Territory? How did the various changes in territorial ownership affect Indians of the lower Mississippi River region? Why was the change from French to Spanish rule so slow? Describe the policies of Governor Antonio de Ulloa. Why did Louisiana Creoles revolt against him? (A "Creole" is a person born in America but of European ancestry.) Explain the enormous Indian problem that did the transfer of Louisiana gave Spain. What policy did Spain adopt?

What did the Spanish inhabitants of Florida do after the transfer of their land to Britain? Who were the Jesuits, what happened to them, and why? Why did the Acadians end up in scattered exile? Where did they go? ("Acadian" later became "Cajun.")

What were similarities and differences between the Peace of 1763 and the Peace of 1783? What was the French strategy for revenge after 1763? How successful was the French strategy? What were the consequences for Britain of their great victory of 1763?