The Evolution of Western European Christianity

Religion in America

Christianity’s Dilemmas

Roman Judaism





  Revolts of 66-70 and 132-135

             Destruction of the Temple and exile

             Rise of Rabbinical Judaism

Origins: Christianity

  James: Christianity as Jewish sect

  St. Paul: Jewish sect to world religion

Roman Catholicism

  Emperor Constantine, 313

             Creation of imperial church

                      Hierarchy & orthodoxy

                      St. Augustine (354-430)

                                  Philosophy & theology

  Medieval growth of papal power

             Gregory VII, 1073: papal goal of Christian society

             Innocent III, 1198: pope above kings

             Boniface VIII, 1294: outside church, no salvation

  Religious orders as standard of piety

             Celibacy, confession

The problem of dissent

  Channel dissent



             Franciscans, Dominicans

  Suppress dissent

             Inquisition, 1233

Crisis in the Church

  “Babylonian captivity” 1309-1377

             Popes in Avignon, France

  The Great Schism, 1378-1417

             Three popes

The Renaissance

  Power, wealth, glory

  Popular yearning for spiritual renewal

  Humanism: recovery of sources

             Criticism of wealth, power, corruption of church