Troubles in New England

Religion in America

The English Civil War

•     Bishops’ War, 1639

  Charles must call Parliament

  Bishops abolished 1641; Laud executed, 1645

•     1642-49, civil war, Charles vs. Parliament

  Oliver Cromwell wins; Charles executed

•     Westminster Assembly of Divines, 1643-1653

  Westminster Confession of Faith

•     Congregationalists and Presbyterians split

  Toleration results in proliferation of sects

  Baptists, Quakers, Ranters, Levellers, 5th Monarchy Men

  Criticism of intolerant Massachusetts Bay Colony

  Puritans exile, imprison, and execute Quakers, 1559-1661

The Restoration

•     Cromwell dies, 1657

•     Charles II, 1660

  Secret Catholic

  Return of the bishops

•     Puritans, Calvinists, sectarians suppressed

Crisis in New England

•     Crisis of purpose

  Ignored by Cromwell, now cut off by Restoration

  New purpose: Puritans as God’s instruments in America

•     Sacramental crisis

  Infant baptism (Gen. 17); conversion assumed

  By 1645, clearly many baptized not converting

  1662 Synod: the Half-Way Covenant

  Controversial: unbiblical

•     Declining fervor, devotion; rising greed, dissension

The Glorious Revolution

•     Charles II revokes charter, 1684

•     James II, 1685, openly Catholic

  Dominion of New England

  Governor Edmund Andros, 1686

•     William III lands in England, 1688-1689

  Spontaneous revolt: Andros jailed

  Act of Toleration, 1689

  New secular charter, 1691

•     Puritan world crumbling

  Witchcraft hysteria, Salem, 1692